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. In other word

  1、Many of the products and services in modern society are based upon the work of electrical engineers and computer scientists. The tremendous reduction over the last decade in the cost of digital electronic devices has led to an explosive growth in the use of computers and computation. At the same time, out increased understanding of computer science has made possible the development of new software systems of increased power, sophistication, and flexibility.


  现在社 会的许多产品和服务都是建立在电器工程师和计算机科学家的工作基础之。 在过去几十年中,数字电 子器件成本的大幅下降已经带来了计算机应用迅猛的增长。与此同时, 人们对 计算机科学认识的提高是的开发新的更强大,更复杂,更灵活 的软件成为可能。


  

  2、It is extremely hard to define dynamic range (DR) for an op amp, so let's start with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC)where DR is an defined as the ratio of the maximum output voltage to the smallest output voltage the DAC can produce.


  由于很 难定义运算放大器的“动态范围”(DR), 因此先给“数模转换器”(DAC)的动态范围下定义。 DAC的动态 范围就是起最大输出电压和最小输出电压之比。


  

  3、The available spectrum bandwidth is shared in number of ways by various wireless radio links. The way in which this is done is referred to as a multiple access scheme.there are basically four principle schemes. These are frequency division multiple access(FDMA), time division multiple access(TDMA), code division multiple access(CDMA), and space division multiple access(SDMA)


  不同的 无限射频链路以不同的方式公用频谱带宽。 这些共用方式称为“多址模式”“频分多址”(FDMA)、“时分多址”(TDMA)、“码分多址”(CDMA)和“空分多址”(SDMA)是四种 主要的多址模式。


  

  4、Use of custom gate array logic, application specific integrated circuits(ASICs),ball grid arrays (BGAs), multichip modules(MCMs) and digital devices operating in the subnanosecond range present new and challenging opportunities for EMC engineers.


  定制门阵陈列逻辑、专用集成电路、秋栅阵列、多芯片 模块和呀纳米数字器件的使用为电磁兼容工程师提供了新的挑战性机遇。


  5、Some digital logic IC and their and their analog counterplots(analog/digital converters,for example) are standard parts, or standard IC. You can select standard IC from catalogs and data books and buy them from distributors. Systems manufacturers and designers can use the same standard part in a variety of different microelectrionic systems( systems that use microelectronic or IC)有些数 字逻辑集成电路和模拟电路(如模数转换器)是标准 器件或者标准集成点路。 可以从 产品目录和数据手册当中选择标准集成电路,从经销商处购买。系统制 造商和设计人员可以在各种不同的微电子系统(“微电子系统”是指应 用微电子技术和集成电路的系统)中使用 相同的标准器件。


  1、In November 1971, Intel introduced the world's first commercial microprocessor, the 4004, invented by three Intel engineers. Primitive by today's standards, it contained a mere 2300 transistors and performed about 6000calculations in a second. Today, the microprocessor is the most complex mass-produced product ever, with millions of transistors performing hundreds of millions of calculations each second.


  1971年11月, 英特尔 公司的三位工程师发明了世界上受骗商用未处理器4004.以今天的标准看,4004是比较简单的。它仅包含2300个晶体管, 在一秒内可执行约60000次运算。今天微 处理器是最复杂的大量生产产品。 它包含 几百万个晶体管,一秒中 可完成数亿次运算。


  2、The same definition of DR can be used for an op amp. And the maximum output voltage swing equals VOUTMAX. This output voltage swing is defined as the maximum output voltage the op amp can achieve(VOH) minus the minimum output voltage the op amp can achieve (VOL).VOH and VOL ate easily obtainable from an op amp IC data sheet.


  这个“动态范围”的定义 也可以用于运算放大器,器最大 输出电压摆幅为VOUTMAX输出电 压摆幅定义为运算放大器能达到的最大输出电压减去嘴子输出电压。从运放 集成电路数据手册中,可以很容易获得VOL和VOH

  3、 A resistor at high frequency acts like a series combination of inductance with the resistor in parallel with a capacitor. A capacitor at high frequency acts like an inductor and resistor in series combination with the capacitor plates.


  工作在 高频的电阻表现为电感和并联的电阻、电容之间的级联。工作在 高频的电容表现为电感、电阻和电容的级联。


  4、The area served by mobile phone systems is divided into small areas known as cells. Each cell contains a base station that communication with mobiles in the cell by transmitting and receiving signals on radio links. The transmission from the base station to a mobile is typically referred to as downstream, forwardlink, or downlink. The corresponding terms for the transmission from a mobile to the base are upstream reverse-link, and uplink. Each bade station is associated with a mobile to the base ate upstream. Reverse-link, and uplink. Each base station is associated with a mobile switching center(MSC) that connects calls to and from the base to mobiles in other cells and the public switched telephone network.


  移动电 话系统的服务区划分为一个个“蜂窝”小区。 每隔“蜂窝”小区都有一座基站;通过在 无线链路上发送、接受信号,基站和“蜂窝”内移动用户通信。基站向 移动用户发送信号称作“前向链路”或“下行链路”。移动用 户向基站发送信号称作“反向链路”或“上行链路”。每个基站都要和“移动交换中心”联络,, 而MSC的作用 是把来往于基站的呼叫和其他蜂窝的移动用户、公共交 换电话网连接起来。


  5、 An ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) is a chip that is custom designed for a specific application rather than a general-purpose chip such as a microprocessor. The use of ASICs improves performance over general-purpose CPUs. Because ASIC are "hardwired" to do a specific job and do not incur the overhead of fetching and interpreting stored instructions. An ASIC chip performs an electronic operation as fast as it is possible to do so, providing, of course, that the circuit design is efficiently constructed


  “专用集成电路”不是微 处理器这样的通用芯片,而是一 种为特殊用途设计的定制芯片。和通用CPU相比,使用专 用集成电路可以提高性能。 因为专 用集成电路是使用硬连线完胜距离工作的,并不需 要为取指令和解释指令付出开销。 专用集 成电路芯片能够以尽可能快的速度完成一项电子操作;当然,器电路 设计应该具有搞笑的结构。


  1、The primary reason for processing real-world signals is to extract information from them. This information normally exists in the form of signal amplitude(absolute or relative),frequency or spectral content, phase, or timing relationships with respect to other signals. Once the desired information is extracted from the signal, it may be uses in a number of ways.


  “提取信息”是对现 实世界信号进行处理的主要原因。通常,信息的 存在在形式是信号幅度(绝对幅度或相对幅度)、频率(或频谱成分、相位(或者和 其他信号之间的时序关系)。一旦把 有用信息从信号中提取出来,就能以 多种方式使用这些信息。


  2、The term octave means a factor of two in frequency. On the piano, one octave comprises eight white keys, accounting for the name(octo is Latin for eight). In other word, the piano's frequency doubles after every seven white keys, and the entire keyboard spans a little over seven octaves. The range of human hearing is generally quoted as 20Hz to 20KHz, corresponding to about 1/2xoctave to the left, and two octaves to the right of the piano keyboard.


  Octave ("八度音阶”或“倍频程”是指频 率上的两倍关系。 在钢琴上,一个“八度音阶”包括八个白的琴键,这就是octave 得名的原因(在拉丁文中,octo代表“八”)换句话说,每隔七 个白色琴键之后,钢琴的频率就加倍,而整个 键盘跨越了七个多一点的“八度音阶”。通常认 为人类听了范围在20Hz到20KHz之间,这两个 频率分别对应与钢琴键盘左边约1/2“八度”处的频 率和钢琴键盘右边两个“八度”处的频率。


  3、The three-dimensional world is imaged by the lens of the human eye onto the retina, which is populated with photoreceptor cells that respond to light having wavelengths in the range of about 400nm to 700nm. In an imaging system, we build a camera having a lens and a photosensitive device, to mimic how the world is perceived by vision.


  通过人眼成像系统,三维世 界成像在视网膜上。视网膜 上遍布着光接受细胞,这些细胞对400~700nm的光有反应。 在成像系统当中,我们用 镜头和光敏器件组成照相机来模拟人类视觉观察世界的方式。


  4、Hardware means machinery and equipment (CPU, disks, tapes, modem, cables, etc.). In operation, a computer is both hardware and software. One is useless without the other. The hardware design specifies the commands it can follow, and the instructions tell it what to do.


  "硬件”就是机器和设备(如处理器,磁盘,磁带,调制解调器和电缆等)。 计算机 在运行时需要硬件,也需要软件, 没有了哪一个都不行。 硬件设 计制定可计算机能够遵循的指令,而指令 告诉计算机该做什么。


  5、The term"wave"can be defined as a pattern of varying quantitative value that repeats over some interval of time. Waves are common in nature : sound waves, brain waves, ocean waves, light waves, voltage waves, and many more. All are periodically repeating phenomena. Signal sources are usually concerned with producing electrical(typically voltage) waves that repeat in a controllable manner.


  "波”可以被 定义为每隔一段时间重复出现的、由变化 树枝构成的曲线。在自然界中,波是很常见的――如声波、脑电波、海浪、光波和电压波形等――这都是 周期性出现的现象。信号源 通常产生重复出现可控的电气波形。


  1、Another requirement for signal processing is to compress the frequency content of the signal(without losing significant information )then format and transmit the information at lower data rates, thereby achieving a reduction in required channel bandwidth. High speed ,modems and adaptive pulse code modulation systems (ADPCM)make extensive use of date reduction algorithms, as do digital mobile radio systems, MPEG recording and playback, and High Definition Television (HDTV)


  信号处 理还可以满足以下需求:在不损 失重要信息的前提下,对信号 的频率成分进行压缩、赋予新 的格式并以低数据率进行传输,从而减小可用带宽。 和数字移动射频系统、MPEG录放设 备和高清晰度电视一样,在告诉调制解调器和“子适应 差分脉冲调制系统”ADPCM中也大 量使用数据压缩算法。


  2、In computing, a display is described by the count of pixels across the width and height of the image. Conventional television would be denoted 633*483, which indicates 483 picture lines. But any display system involves some scanning overhead, so the total number of lines in the raster of conventional video is necessarily greater than 483


  在计算机领域,显示器用图像宽、高方向 上的像素进行描述。常规电视表示644*483,这以为这483条图像线。不过,显示系 统都包含一些用于扫描的开销;因此,常规视 频扫描的总线数一定大于483


  3、Firmware is a category of memory chips that hold their content without electrical power and include ROM,PROM, EPROM and EEPROM technologies. Firmware becomes"hard software"when holding program code.


  固件是 无需电源而能保存内容的存储芯片, 包括ROM、PROM、EPROM和EEPROM。在存储 了程序代码之后, 过肩就 成为一种硬的软件。


  4、Waveforms have many characteristic but their key properties pertain to amplitude, frequency, and phase. The amplitude, frequency, and phase characteristic of waveform are the building blocks a signal source use to optimize waveforms for almost any application.


  “数字多用表”是一种 用来测量电学量(电压、电流、电阻)的仪表。“数字多用表”的用途广泛、形状多样、尺寸各异。“模拟多用表”在音质 刻度上移动指针来现实结果。虽然指 针移动有利于显示渐进的变化,但精确 度却不如数字显示。“数字多用表”在数字 液晶读出器或者发光二极管读出器上现实精确的测量结果。


  5、An oscilloscope is a test instrument that displays electronic signals (waves and pulses) on a screen. It creates its own time base against which signals can be measured.


  “示波器”是一种 在屏幕上显示电信好(波形和脉冲)的测量仪器。“示波器”能够产生“时基”用来进行信号测量


  1、Microprocessors ate the brains of your personal computer. Here on this tiny silicon chip are millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions and perform helpful tasks. And microprocessors don't just think for computers-you might find a processor in many other everyday items like your telephone or car.


  微处理 器是个人计算机的神经中枢。 在这个 小小的硅片上集成了数以百万的开关和数据通路, 它们帮 助计算机做出重要的决定和完成有意义的任务。 但微处 理器不是只为计算机而设计的。 人们可以在电话、汽车等 许多日常物品中发现处理器。


  2、The Chebyshev equal ripple filter distributes the roll-off across the whole passband. It introduces more ripples in the passband but provides a sharper roll-off in the transition region. This type of filter has poorer transient and step responses due to its higher Q values in the stages of the tilter


  切比雪 服等波纹滤波器的频域滚降分布在整个通带范围内。其通带内波纹较多、而过渡 区的滚降比较陡峭。引起在滤波过程中的Q值较高, 切比雪 服等波纹滤波器的暂态响应和阶跃响应较差,杭州翻译公司


  3、SPICE( Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis) is a program widely used to simulate the performance of analog electronic systems and mixed mode analog and digital systems. SPICE solves sets of non-linear differential equations in the frequency domain, steady state and time domain and can simulate the behaviour of transistor and gate designs.


  SPICE(侧重集 成电路的仿真程序)是一个 广泛用于模拟电路混合电路仿真的程序。 SPICE解决了 多组建立在频域、稳态和 时域的非线性方程,从而能 够对晶体管和门电路的设计行为进行模拟


  4、In TDMA and FDMA systems a frequency channel used in a cell is not used in adjacent cells to prevent co-channel interference. In a CDMA system it is possible to use the same frequency channel in adjacent cells and thus increase the system capacity


  在TDMA和FDMA系统中, 为了防止信道间干扰, 某个蜂 窝小区使用感动额频道不会被临近蜂窝小区使用。 在CDMA系统中,可以在 临近蜂窝小区中使用相同频率,从而增加了系统容量。


  5、A soft core is a block of logic for a particular function that is designed to be implemented in a programmable logic chip (PLD)or on a programmable section of a microcontroller chip or system on a chip (Sock).depending on the vendor, the logic can come as schematic ,netlist of HDL code. Soft cores may be implemented with hard cores on a chip.


  “软核”是在可 变成逻辑芯片上或在微控器、片上系 统的可编程部分实现的。根据生产商的不同,逻辑功 能可能以原理图、网表或 者硬件描述语言代码的形式提供。软核可 以用芯片上的硬核来实现。


  1、The primary reason for processing real-world signals is to extract information from them. This information normally exists in the form of signal amplitude(absolute or relative),frequency or spectral content, phase, or timing relationships with respect to other signals. Once the desired information is extracted from the signal, it may be uses in a number of ways.


  “提取信息”是对现 实世界信号进行处理的主要原因。通常,信息的 存在在形式是信号幅度(绝对幅度或相对幅度)、频率(或频谱成分、相位(或者和 其他信号之间的时序关系)。一旦把 有用信息从信号中提取出来,就能以 多种方式使用这些信息。


  2、The term octave means a factor of two in frequency. On the piano, one octave comprises eight white keys, accounting for the name(octo is Latin for eight). In other word, the piano's frequency doubles after every seven white keys, and the entire keyboard spans a little over seven octaves. The range of human hearing is generally quoted as 20Hz to 20KHz, corresponding to about 1/2xoctave to the left, and two octaves to the right of the piano keyboard.


  Octave ("八度音阶”或“倍频程”是指频 率上的两倍关系。 在钢琴上,一个“八度音阶”包括八个白的琴键,这就是octave 得名的原因(在拉丁文中,octo代表“八”)换句话说,每隔七 个白色琴键之后,钢琴的频率就加倍,而整个 键盘跨越了七个多一点的“八度音阶”。通常认 为人类听了范围在20Hz到20KHz之间,这两个 频率分别对应与钢琴键盘左边约1/2“八度”处的频 率和钢琴键盘右边两个“八度”处的频率。


  3、The three-dimensional world is imaged by the lens of the human eye onto the retina, which is populated with photoreceptor cells that respond to light having wavelengths in the range of about 400nm to 700nm. In an imaging system, we build a camera having a lens and a photosensitive device, to mimic how the world is perceived by vision.


  通过人眼成像系统,三维世 界成像在视网膜上。视网膜 上遍布着光接受细胞,这些细胞对400~700nm的光有反应。 在成像系统当中,我们用 镜头和光敏器件组成照相机来模拟人类视觉观察世界的方式。


  4、Hardware means machinery and equipment (CPU, disks, tapes, modem, cables, etc.). In operation, a computer is both hardware and software. One is useless without the other. The hardware design specifies the commands it can follow, and the instructions tell it what to do.


  "硬件”就是机器和设备(如处理器,磁盘,磁带,调制解调器和电缆等)。 计算机 在运行时需要硬件,也需要软件, 没有了哪一个都不行。 硬件设 计制定可计算机能够遵循的指令,而指令 告诉计算机该做什么。


  5、The term"wave"can be defined as a pattern of varying quantitative value that repeats over some interval of time. Waves are common in nature : sound waves, brain waves, ocean waves, light waves, voltage waves, and many more. All are periodically repeating phenomena. Signal sources are usually concerned with producing electrical(typically voltage) waves that repeat in a controllable manner.


  "波”可以被 定义为每隔一段时间重复出现的、由变化 树枝构成的曲线。在自然界中,波是很常见的――如声波、脑电波、海浪、光波和电压波形等――这都是 周期性出现的现象。信号源 通常产生重复出现可控的电气波形。


  1、Many systems operate at high frequencies at which conductors no longer behave as simple wires, but instead exhibit high-frequency effects and behave as transmission lines. If there transmission lines are not handled properly, they can unintentionally ruin system timing.


  许多系 统功过在高频上,导体在 这些频率上不再仅仅表芯为导线,而是展 现出高频效应并表现为传输线。 如果没 有正确处理这些传输线,就可能 在无意中破坏了系统时序。


  2、Memory can be split into two main categories: Volatile and nonvolatile. Volatile memory loses its content when the system is powered off, most types of RAM fall into this category. Nonvolatile memory does not lose its data when the system or device is tuned off


  存储器 可以分为两大类“易失的和非易失的。易失存 储器在系统掉电后就丢失了其存储内容。非易失 存储器系统或者器件掉电之后不会丢失数据。


  3、Ohm's law is stated as V=IR, and it is fundamental to all electronic. Ohm's law can be applied to a single component, to any group of components, or to a complete circuit,when the current flowing through any portion of a circuit is known, the voltage dropped across that portion of the circuit is obtained by multiplying the current times the resistance.


  在电子技术各领域中,欧姆定 律都是基本定律。 欧姆定律可表述为V=IR。欧姆定 律可应用于单个器件、一组器 件或一个完整电路。当已知 流过电路中个部分的电流时, 其电压 降可有电阻和电流的乘积获得。


  4、The same definition of DR can be used for an op amp. And the maximum output voltage swing equals VOUTMAX. This output voltage swing is defined as the maximum output voltage the op amp can achieve(VOH) minus the minimum output voltage the op amp can achieve (VOL).VOH and VOL ate easily obtainable from an op amp IC data sheet.


  这个“动态范围”的定义 也可以用于运算放大器,器最大 输出电压摆幅为VOUTMAX输出电 压摆幅定义为运算放大器能达到的最大输出电压减去嘴子输出电压。从运放 集成电路数据手册中,可以很容易获得VOL和VOH

  5、A video system conveys image data in the form of a component that represents brightness, and two other components that represent color. It is important to convey the brightness component in such a way that noise introduced in transmission processing, and storage has a perceptually similar effect across the entire tone scale from black to white.


  视频系 统采用一个亮度分量和两个四菜分量的形式传送图像数据。亮度分 量的传输是很重要的;因为在传输、处理和 存储过程中引入的噪声也会引起和亮度相似的感知效应,而且覆盖整个“从黑到白”的范围。


  1、It is extremely hard to define dynamic range (DR) for an op amp, so let's start with a digital-to-analog converter (DAC)where DR is an defined as the ratio of the maximum output voltage to the smallest output voltage the DAC can produce.


  由于很 难定义运算放大器的“动态范围”(DR), 因此先给“数模转换器”(DAC)的动态范围下定义。 DAC的动态 范围就是起最大输出电压和最小输出电压之比。


  

  2、The primary reason for processing real-world signals is to extract information from them. This information normally exists in the form of signal amplitude(absolute or relative),frequency or spectral content, phase, or timing relationships with respect to other signals. Once the desired information is extracted from the signal, it may be uses in a number of ways.


  “提取信息”是对现 实世界信号进行处理的主要原因。通常,信息的 存在在形式是信号幅度(绝对幅度或相对幅度)、频率(或频谱成分、相位(或者和 其他信号之间的时序关系)。一旦把 有用信息从信号中提取出来,就能以 多种方式使用这些信息。


  3、In computing, a display is described by the count of pixels across the width and height of the image. Conventional television would be denoted 633*483, which indicates 483 picture lines. But any display system involves some scanning overhead, so the total number of lines in the raster of conventional video is necessarily greater than 483


  在计算机领域,显示器用图像宽、高方向 上的像素进行描述。常规电视表示644*483,这以为这483条图像线。不过,显示系 统都包含一些用于扫描的开销;因此,常规视 频扫描的总线数一定大于483


  4、Digital signal processing is an essential element of countless home and business systems. Its domain can only increase as time proceeds. Thus , DSP is becoming an essential area of expertise for technologists and engineers


  数字信 号处理是无数家用和商用系统的关键部分,其应用领域与日俱增。因此,DSP正在成 为技术专家和工程师专业知识的重要组成部分之一。


  5、A soft core is a block of logic for a particular function that is designed to be implemented in a programmable logic chip (PLD)or on a programmable section of a microcontroller chip or system on a chip (Sock).depending on the vendor, the logic can come as schematic ,netlist of HDL code. Soft cores may be implemented with hard cores on a chip.


  “软核”是在可 变成逻辑芯片上或在微控器、片上系 统的可编程部分实现的。根据生产商的不同,逻辑功 能可能以原理图、网表或 者硬件描述语言代码的形式提供。软核可 以用芯片上的硬核来实现。

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