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  When he had gone out


  The Peach Colony (translated by Lin Yutang 林语堂)

  During the reign of Taiyuan of Chin,, the fisherman took his leave. The village people entreated him not to let others know of their existence.

  Once out, the fisherman found his boat and rowed homeward, leaving marks all the way. When he came back to the prefecture, he reported his adventure to the prefect, who immediately sent people to look for the place, with the fisherman as a guide. However, the marks he had left could no longer be found. They got lost and could not find the way.

  Liu Ziji of Nanyang Prefecture (4), a learned scholar of high repute, was excited when hearing the fisherman's story. He devised a plan to find the village, but it was not carried out. Liu died soon afterwards, and after his death, no one else made any attempt to find it.

  (1)This piece of writing is regarded as one of the earliest pieces about Utopianism in Chinese Literature (2)Taiyuan was the title of the reign of Emperor Xiaowu of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

  (3)Wuling Prefecture is today's Changde City, Hunan Province.

  (4) Nanyang is today's Nanyang City, Henan Province.

  The Peach Blossom Visionary Land(孙大雨 译)

  During the Tai-yuan years of the dynasty Jin, a fisherman from the county of Wuling strolled on the bank of a stream, forgetting the distance of his track, into a grove of blossoming peach trees all at once. For several hundred steps along the bank side, there were no other trees; the sward was freshly green and fallen petals of the peach blooms were scattered on the grass verdure. The fisherman, surprised by the sight, walked on to see where the grove would end. It ended at the source of the stream, where there was a mountain. An aperture opened on the mount, from which light seemed to be emitted.

  The man abandoned his boat and entered the opening. It was narrow at first, just enough to pass through. After several tens of steps, the way led to vast spaciousness. The land was level and expanded, houses were spread out in good order; goodly farms, fair ponds and mulberry and bamboo thickets were to be seen everywhere. The ways and cross roads were stretched out far and wide. Cocks' crew and dogs' barking were heard here and there. The men and women coming and going in their tilling and handicraft work were dressed all like people outside. The aged with hair of light beige and children with cut hair fringing their foreheads all looked gay and contented. Seeing the fisherman, people were greatly surprised, asking him whence he came from and being replied to. They then invited him to their homes, offering wine and killing chickens for entertainment. When it was generally known in the village that there was this man, more people came to see and ask questions of him. They all said that their forefathers, fleeing from turmoils during the Qin Dynasty, led their families and villagers hither to this isolated district to stay, and so being separated from the outside world. They asked what time it was then, knowing not there was any dynasty Han, to say nothing of those of Wei and Jin. The man answered them all in details, whereon they heaved sighs and exclamations. All the others also invited him severally to their homes for hospitality. After many a day, he made his departure. They told him not to publicize his sojourn there.

  When out, he sought out his boat and noted closely the way leading to the aperture of the mount. After his return to the chief town of the county, he went to the alderman and made a report of his outlandish excursion. The county official dispatched a man to follow him whereto he would lead. But he could not find the spots he had noted on his way back and so lost the whereabouts of the grove of blossoming peach trees. Liu Ziji of Nanyang, a scholar of high repute, hearing of the story sought to find out the place. He fell sick and died, before his attempted trial. Thereafter, no one ever ventured the visionary deed.

  The Peach Blossom Source (谢百魁 译)

  One day in the Taiyuan period of the Jin Dynasty, a native of Wuling Prefecture, being a fisherman by trade, was boating in a stream. Oblivious of the distance that he had covered, he came upon a peach grove, which lined the banks of the stream for several hundred paces. The grove was unmixed with any other trees and was carpeted with fragrant and tender grass, while the newly opened blossom was a riot of pink. The fisherman much wondered and proceeded further, hoping to reach the end of the grove, which turned out to be the head of the stream. There he was confronted with a crag, which had a small orifice looking as if it were lit by a dim light. Then he abandoned the boat and entered the opening.

  At first the cave was very narrow, only passable for one person. After a further walk of several dozen paces, a broad view burst upon his sight. He saw an even and wide tract of land, on which some houses were arranged in good order, with fertile lands, beautiful ponds, mulberry trees and bamboos all around them. The fields were crisscrossed with ridged paths. The cocks and dogs heard and echoed each other. The clothes worn by the men and women tilling the land were identical with those of the outsiders. The aged and the adolescent all enjoyed themselves in blissful ease.

  At sight of the fisherman, they were dumbfounded. Then they asked whence he came, and he answered their questions one by one. He was soon invited to their homes, treated to a dinner with wine and chicken. Hearing of the stranger, the villagers all came to see him and made him inquiries. By their own account their ancestors, in order to escape from the tumults of war during the Qin Dynasty, led their wives, children and townsmen to this secluded place, and never went out again. Thus they were isolated from the outside world. Their inquiries about the present times showed that they had no idea of the Han, let alone the Wei and Jin dynasties. The fisherman told them everything he knew, and they were all surprised and regretted their ignorance. The remaining folks also invited him to their homes, entertaining him with wine and food. The fisherman, having stayed for several days, bade them farewell. The people said to him, “There is no need to tell the outside world about us.”

  Having left the cave, the fisherman found his boat and rowed along the former route, making marks all the way. Upon his return in the prefecture he visited the prefect and gave him a detailed account. The latter immediately sent some people as his escort, tracing the marks in search of the place. But they went astray and lost their way.

  Liu Ziji of Nanyang, a high-minded recluse, having been informed of it, set out gladly for this unknown village, but to no purpose. Later he died of illness. Afterwards, no one went to search for it again.

  Peach-Blossom Source (translated by A. R. Davis)

  During the Taiyuan period (376--396) of Jin a man of Wuling, who made his living as a fisherman, ascended a stream, forgetful of the distance he traveled. Suddenly he came upon a grove of peach trees in blossom. They lined the banks for several hundred paces: among them were no other kinds of tree. The fragrant herbage was fresh and beautiful; fallen blossom lay in profusion. The fisherman, in extreme wonder, again went forward, wishing to go to the end of the grove,. The grove ended at the stream's source, and there he found a hill. In the hill was a small opening from which a light seemed to come. So he left his boat and went in through the opening. At first it was very narrow, barely allowing a man to pass, but as he went on for some tens of paces, it came out into the open air, upon lands level and wide with houses of a stately appearance. There fine fields and beautiful pools, clumps of mulberries and bamboos. The field dykes intersected; cocks crowed and dogs barked to each other. The clothes of the men and women who came and went, planted and worked among them were entirely like those of people outside. The white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts happily enjoyed themselves.

  When they saw the fisherman, they were greatly surprised and asked from what place he came. When he had answered all their questions, they invited him to come back to their home, where they set out wine, killed a chicken and made a meal. When the villagers heard of this man, they all came to pay their respects. They told him that their ancestors, fleeing from the troubles during the Qin period (221BC--208BC), had brought their wives and children and neighbours to this inaccessible spot and had not gone out again. Thus they became cut off from people outside. They asked what dynasty it was now: they did not know that there had been Han (206 BC--220AD, nor of courts Wei (220--265AD) or Jin. The fisherman told them all he knew, item by item, and at everything they sighed with grief. The others in turn also invited him to their homes, and all set out wine and food. He stayed for several days and then took leave of them. The people of this place said to him: "You should not speak of this to those outside."

  When he had gone out, he found his boat and folllowed the route by which he had come: everywhere he noted the way. When he reached the commandery, he called on the prefect and told him this story. The prefect immediately sent a man to go with him and seek out the places he had previously noted, but they went astray and could not find the way again.

  Liu Ziji of Nanyang, who was a scholar of lofty ideals, heard of it and joyfully planned to go. Soon after, before he had carried out his plan, he fell ill and died. Afterwards there was no one who "sought the ford".

  从《桃花源记》四种英 译文对比研究看文言文翻译

  文言文 翻译要求译者不仅要有较高的汉语水平,还要有 较高的外语水平,这样才 能实现语言之间的准确转换。近年来,随着中 国对外交流的飞速发展,汉译英工作蓬勃开展,相当数 量的中国古代优秀作品译成英语,优秀的作品各具千秋,但仔细 阅读又会发现诸多问题。

  本文将以陶渊明的《桃花源记》为例,对比分 析其四个比较成功的英译版本(即: A Tale of the Fountain of the Peach Blossom Spring--by罗经国; The Peach Colony --by 林语堂; Peach-Blossom Springs by 方重; Peach-Blossom Source -- by A. R. Davis ), 以揭露 文言文翻译的难点。

  首先,题目《桃花源记》,因为此文为叙事散文,所以“记”译成tale 还是比较合适的,但是罗用的fountain与spring有重复之嫌,而林忽略了“源记”的翻译、方和Davis忽视了“记”,则略显不当,所以笔 者也赞成导师高玉芳老师的译文“A Tale of Peach Blossom Spring”。

  文言文 英译的语言准确表达很难!文言文 的翻译过程比较复杂,是“理解(古汉语)----转换(成现代汉语)----表达(成外语)”比现代 文的翻译多了一个很重要的环节――转换,而这期 间避免不了对原文信息的误解和丢失,从而使 原文面临二度损失。

  本文将在词句、篇章方面,分别举 例加以对比分析。

  词句方面:例1,翻译“缘溪行”时,林用walking, 而根据 上下文的理解我们知道,捕鱼人是划船而往的,所以罗的rowed his boat更合适; 例2,翻译“落英缤纷”时,罗用了in riotous profusion, 这样就 失去了情景的美感,与原文意境不符,而林直接用了rose petals更让人不甚明了,Davis 的fallen blossom lay in profusion差强人意,幸好方的Here and there falling blossoms were dancing gracefully in a housand hues 能较好 的描述当时的景色,给人美妙的感受。例3,翻译“不足为外人道也”时,林用了The villagers begged him not to tell the people outside about their colony.,beg意思是祈求请求,罗用了The village people entreated him not to let others know of their existence.,entreat意思是请求恳求,而方用了He was bidden, however, to keep to himself all the things talked about among them, for, they said, such matters would not be worth imparting to the outside world.bidden意思是请求要求命令,impart意思是通知告诉透露。均语气较强,而Davis用的The people of this place said to him: "You should not speak of this to those outside." 则更为贴切。

  篇章方面,由于四 个译者都是翻译大家,对文章 的把握都比较到位,而且文笔畅达、行文流畅,一定程 度上都堪称范文之作,有的译 者评价林语堂的译文:“能用异 国的语言将原文的神韵传达的淋漓尽致; 真实的 再现原文的风格,有时,表面的 背离是为例深层次的服从,形式上 的一致有时并不能从深层意义上反应原作的意图,所以,‘形似’ ‘神似’的取舍 很对程度上取决于译者对原文风格的分析。”但是,我认为,林文省略太多,不仅没 有表达出当时的情景之美、环境之幽、人们之乐,而且对 于术语和特殊的词汇没有适当的说明,不甚恰当。例4,翻译《桃花源记》第二段中“有良田、美池、桑竹之属,阡陌交通,鸡犬相闻,其中往来种作,男女衣着,悉如外人。黄发垂髫,并怡然自乐”时,林的There were bamboos and mulberries; farmers were working and dogs and chickens were running about. The dresses of the men and women were like those of the outside world, and the old men and children appeared very happy and contented.略显简单平乏;而Davis的There fine fields and beautiful pools, clumps of mulberries and bamboos. The field dykes intersected; cocks crowed and dogs barked to each other. The clothes of the men and women who came and went, planted and worked among them were entirely like those of people outside. The white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts happily enjoyed themselves.就丰富的多、真实的多!众所周知,在四位译者中,林是时间最久的一位,毕竟时 代是最好的促进进步的工具,所以,翻译事 业在巨人的肩上,定会蒸蒸日上的!

  翻译文言文时,我们应 该遵循民族性原则。虽然文 言文与现代文学有着线条的社会功能,但是,因为它 有特殊的认识体系,所以在思想原则、概念范 畴方面有独特的规定。文言文 是中华民族特有的文化,有鲜明的民族性,所以应 该在翻译上有所体现,以弘扬 中华优秀的文化遗产。而此民 族性主要体现在术语翻译上。在翻译术语时,我们对 其内涵要加以规定,才能不使其产生歧义,已解决内涵对等问题。虽然中 英在很多术语方面是没有对等的,但,毕竟语 言只是传情达意的符号,所以对 其内涵加以规定,就能保证释义一致性,从而消除误解和歧义。例5,翻译 “黄发垂髫”时,罗用了old and young,林用了old men and children,虽意思无甚偏差,却缺乏中国风采,而方的The yellow-tressed梳成发髻的 old folk and the youngsters with flowing hair 和Davis 的white-haired and the children with their hair in tufts则能较 好的描述古代的风俗,具有鲜明的民族性。例6,“晋太元中”的翻译,罗用了注释法,方用了解释法,Davis用了时间限定法,而林则直译,需要有 一定历史水平的人才能理解。

  在文言文英译方面,翻译大 家尚且不能做到完美,我们这 些学生更应该不知满足积极进取。在平时翻译练习时,应该努 力弄懂古今词义的差别,勤查工具书; 翻译过程中要直译、意译相结合,并准确把握特殊词语、语序、句式的翻译。

  文言文 传承者几千年中国人民智慧的结晶,是无尽的智慧宝藏,其优点 在于闻之精炼优美,微言大义。要译好,需要译 者有良好的古汉语知识基础及现代汉语表达能力和准确的语言转换能力,所以,能达到 翻译的高境界任重而道远。

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