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当译成 前置定语变得臃肿阻碍时最好让其独立成句

  98年 71) But even more important, it was the farthest that scientists had been able to look into the past, for what they were seeing were the patterns and structures that existed 15 billion years ago.


  构造剖析:这是一个复合句. But even more important是整个句子的状语,it was the farthest是主句,that scientists had been able to look into the past是修饰the farthest的定语从句,for引导缘由状语从句(参见1995年71题),在这个状语从句中,what they were seeing是主语从句,were the patterns and structures是状语 从句中的系表构造,that existed…是修饰名词patterns and structures的定语从句。
  译文: 但更为重要的是,这是科 学家们所能察看到的最悠远的过去的现象,由于他们看到的是150亿年前 宇宙云的外形和构造。
  02年 64)They are the possessions of the autonomous (self-governing) man of traditional theory, and they are essential to practices in which a person is held responsible for his conduct and given credit for his achievements.
  构造剖析:这是一个复合句。主句是 由两个并列的分句构成的:They are…, and they are;in which引导定语从句,修饰practices,其中is held responsible for … and given credit for …并列做 定语从句的谓语,given前面省略了助动词is。
  译 文: 自在和威严(它们)是传统 理论定义的自主人所具有的,是请求 一个人对本人的行为担任并因其业绩而给予肯定的必不可少的前提。
  它们(自在和威严)关于那 种请求个人对本人的行为担任并由于其业绩而遭到赞扬的做法来说,是必不可少的。
  当译成 前置定语会使句子变得臃肿,阻碍了解的时分,最好让其独立成句。
  94(72)\"In short\", a leader of the new school contends, \"the scientific revolution, as we call it, was largely the improvement and invention and use of a series of instruments that expanded the reach of science in innumerable directions.\"
  新学派 的一位首领人物坚持说:“简而言之,我们所 称谓的科学反动,主要是 指一系列用具的改良、创造和运用,这些改良、创造和 运用使科学开展的范围无所不及。”
  The police contended that the difficulties they faced were too severe.
  警察强 调说他们面临的艰难太严重了。
  He left his job largely because he was homesick..他辞职 不干主要是由于他想家。
  We have countless reasons against his plan.我们有 不胜枚举的理由反对他的方案。
  96 72) This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
  根本构造:简单句+时间状语从句(主语+谓语+宾语+同位语从句(主语the specific demands +定语从句that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment+谓语cannot generally be foreseen in detail)
  根本构造试译:这种趋 向始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一 些国度的政府得出结论:……
  译 文:这种趋 向始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一 些国度的政府得出结论:政府要 向科研机构提出的详细请求通常是无法详尽预见的。
  留意:不要将when引导的 定语从句与时间状语从句相混杂,当然也就不能when引导的 定语从句翻译成“当… 时分”。When引导定 语从句前面普通是表示时间的词作为先行词,假如是过去时,when译成“其时、届时”“当时”“在那个时分”,假如是未来时态,则译成“到时”“届时”,有时分还能够译成“然后”“随后”。
  The Queen will visit the small town in April, when she will open the new hospital.
  女王将 于四月访问小镇,到时,她将掌 管这家新医院的开业典礼。
  I expect to stay here no more than two days, when I shall return.
  99 71) While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians, modern practice most closely conforms to one that sees history as the attempt to recreate and explain the significant events of the past.
  构造剖析:这是一个复合句。While there are almost as many definitions of history as there are historians整个这 一局部是退让状语从句,其中第一个as是水平副词,第二个as是连词,引导比拟状语从句there are historians;modern practice most closely conforms to one是主谓宾构造的主句;that sees history as the attempt是修饰one的定语从句,to recreate and explain the significant events of the past是不定式短语做名词attempt的后置定语。
  译文:简直每 个历史学家对史学都有本人的界定,但现代 史学家的理论最趋向于以为历史学是试图重现过去的严重史实并对其做出解释。
  [我们的翻译]:简直每 个历史学家对史学都有本人的界定,而现代 理论最契合这样一个定义,该定义 把历史看作是重现和解释过去的重要事情的尝试。
  There are almost as many job opportunities as there are college graduates.
  简直每 个大学毕业生都有就业时机。
  01 73) Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world to produce a unique millennium technology calendar that gives the latest dates when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.
  构造剖析:这是一个复合句。Pearson has pieced together the work是主谓构造的主句,of hundreds of researchers是介宾 短语做定语修饰名词work,around the world则是介宾短语修饰名词researchers,to produce a unique millennium technology calendar是不定 式短语做结果状语,that引导定 语从句修饰名词calendar,when引导定语从句修饰dates。这里的when相当于by which,因而不能翻译成“当… 时分”,而应该翻译成“经过这些日期”或者“到这些日期”(参见96年真题72)
  译文:皮尔森 聚集世界各地数百位研讨人员的成果,编制了 一个共同的新技术千年历,它列出 了人们有望看到数百项严重打破和发现的最迟日期。
  97 71) Actually, it isn\'t, because it assumes that there is an agreed account of human rights, which is something the world does not have.
  构造剖析:这是一个多反复合句。Actually,是副词做状语,修饰整个句子,it isn\'t,是主句,在because引导的 缘由状语从句中,that引导宾语从句,which引导非 限制性定语从句修饰名词an agreed account,而the world does not have是省略了从句引导词that的定语从句,修饰something。
  译文:事实并非如此,由于这 种问法是以人们对人的权益有共同认识为根底的,而这种 共同认识并不存在。
  定语从 句分为限定性定语从句和非限定性定语从句。由于二 者在翻译时无大差别,所以讨 论时不加严厉辨别。定语从 句的译法普通有三种:
  由于定 语从句的作用相当于定语,所以这 种译法是最普遍的。
  当定语 从句与被修饰词之间关系不很严密,且译为 前置定语过于臃肿时,应该思 索将定语从句单独成句,详细做 法是将关系词处置为先行词的反复。P1-72 P8-71
  He, who has been in this school for five years, is quite familiar with the campus.
  由于在 学校曾经待了五年,所以他对校园很熟习。
  Electronic computers, which have many advantages, cannot do creative work and replace human.
  虽然电脑有很多优势,但还是 不能做发明性的工作,不能替代人






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